Bachelor of Arts

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What is Bachelor of Arts?

The full form of BA is Bachelor of Arts. BA is an extremely popular undergraduate course that students take right after their 12th class. Here are some important facts to know about Bachelor's or Arts, The bachelor's or arts degree typically lasts three years. As part of a Bachelor of Arts course, students are required to study five compulsory subjects along with some electives. These topics vary according to the discipline selected by the candidates. Candidates can follow a BA course as a full-time course or even as a part-time course, a correspondence course, or in a distance education mode. 

Bachelor of Arts courses are offered by universities under various streams such as Design, Hospitality, Mass Communication, and Pure Humanities. BA is most popular with Humanities students and there are several BA Humanities majors. The list of the most popular BA Humanities majors and the universities offering those majors is mentioned in the table below

Different languages (English, French, German, Hindi, Spanish, Chinese/ Mandarin, Greek, Japanese, Latin)


Political Science



Communication Studies




Religious Studies

Eligibility criteria for BA

The eligibility criteria for a Bachelor of Arts course specify that candidates must have completed their 10 + 2 from a recognized board. Apart from this, some colleges also specify that applicants must have obtained a minimum of 50% of total grades at their Class 12 level to be eligible to pursue a BA course offered by them. Some colleges also offer a 5% score relaxation for this criterion for SC / ST candidates.

Required skills for BA

Candidates who want to pursue a BA course must have an interest in the topics they choose to pursue in the course. A distance education degree can be obtained from universities like IGNOU, TNOU, KSOU, etc. within a range of INR 6,000 to 20,000. The duration required to complete this distance program is 3 years and the maximum duration is 6 years. Some of the key skills that applicants must have in order to pursue a BA course are as mentioned below:


Good writer

Fluent in language


Intellectually curious


What is the admission process to the Bachelor of Arts?

Admission to the Bachelor of Arts is offered by both merit and entry in India.

  • Merit Admission: Colleges generate your cut-off list, and if you've scored within that criteria, then you're eligible to enter that program. The list of cuts in elite universities like Hindu College, Miranda House, Gargi College, etc. increases to 98% for BA courses.

  • Admission through entrance: Few universities like Banaras Hindu University, Delhi University and more accept admission through entrance like JNUEE, BHU UET, DUET, etc. Scores on these entrance exams and / or Class XII scores are considered during BA admission.

The admission process for entry and merit types is the same as for registration, document uploading, and application fees. The only difference is that it is necessary to collect the admission card and sit at the entrances in case of admission through the entrances.

BA subjects and study program

The subjects taught in an undergraduate course vary depending on the discipline selected by the student. Apart from this, there is also a slight variation in the syllabus from one university to another. Candidates can see the subjects they would need to study as part of their BA course below:

BA English

English Literature 4(i)

Twentieth-Century Indian Writing(i)

Concurrent – Qualifying Language

English Literature 4(ii)

Twentieth-Century Indian Writing(ii)

English Literature 1(i)

Concurrent – Credit Language

English Literature 1(ii)

English Literature 2(i)

Nineteenth-Century European Realism(i)/ Classical Literature (i)/ Forms of Popular Fiction (i)

Concurrent – Interdisciplinary

English Literature 2(ii)

English Literature 3(i)

Nineteenth-Century European Realism(ii)/ Classical Literature (ii)/ Forms of Popular Fiction (ii)

Concurrent – Discipline Centered I

English Literature 3(ii)

English Literature 5(i)

Contemporary Literature(i)

Anglo-American Writing from 1930(i)/ Literary Theory (i)/ Women’s Writing of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (i)/ Modern European Drama (i)

English Literature 5(ii)

Contemporary Literature(ii)

Anglo-American Writing from 1930(ii)/ Literary Theory (ii)/ Women’s Writing of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (ii)/ Modern European Drama (ii)

Concurrent – Discipline Centered II


BA Political Science

Language - MIL/ English Environmental Science

Understanding Political Theory

Constitutional Government and Democracy in India

Generic Elective - I

Environmental Science Language - MIL/ English

Political Theory-Concepts and Debates

Political Process in India

Generic Elective - II

Introduction to Comparative Government & Politics

Perspectives on Public Administration

Perspectives on International Relations

Generic Elective - III

Ability Enhancement Course - I

Pol. Process & Inst. in Comparative Perspective

Public Policy and Administration in India

Global Politics

Generic Elective - IV

Ability Enhancement Course - II

Classical Political Philosophy

Modern Indian Political Thought - I

Discipline-Specific Elective - I

Discipline-Specific Elective - II

Modern Political Philosophy

Indian Political Thought - II

Discipline-Specific Elective - III

Discipline-Specific Elective - IV

BA History

History of India-I

Social Formations and Cultural Patterns of the Ancient World

History of India-II

Social Formations and Cultural Patterns of the Medieval World

History of India-III (c. 750-1206)

Rise of Modern West-I

History of India IV (c.1206-1550)

Rise of Modern West -11

History of India-V (c. 1550-1605)

History of India-VI (c. 1750-1857

History of Modern Europe- I (c. 1780-1939)

History of India-VII (c. 1605-1750)

History of India-VIII (c. 1857-1950)

History of Modern Europe- II (1780-1939)

History Of Southeast Asia-The 19TH Century

History Of Southeast Asia-The 20TH Century

History of Modern East Asia-I(c.1840-1919)

History of Modern East Asia-1I (c. 1868-1945)


Generic Elective (Interdisciplinary Any Four)

Environmental Issues In India

Research Methodology in History

Making of Contemporary India

Delhi: Ancient

Delhi: Medieval

Delhi: Modern

Issues in the Contemporary World

Any Two: Understanding Heritage/ Art Appreciation: An Introduction to Indian Art/ Archives and museums/ Understanding Popular Culture

Discipline-Specific Elective (Any Four)

  • History Of United States Of America -1(C. 1776 -1945)

  • History Of United States Of America -I1(C. 1776 - 1945)

  • History Of The USSR-I (c. 1917- 1964)

  • History Of The USSR-II (c. 1917- 1964)

  • History Of Africa (c. 1500 - 1960s)

BA Psychology

Introduction to Psychology

Statistical Methods for Psychological Research-I

Environmental Science

General Psychology


Psychology of Individual Differences

English Communication

Youth, Gender and Identity

Development of Psychological

Psychological Research

Social Psychology

Emotional Intelligence

Psychology for Health and Well-being

Understanding Psychological Disorders

Statistical Methods for Psychological Research-II

Applied Social Psychology

Stress Management

Psychology at Work

Dealing with Psychological Disorders

Developmental Psychology

Positive Psychology

Human Resource Management

Organizational Behavior

Counselling Psychology

Health Psychology

Community Psychology

BA Philosophy

Indian Philosophy


Greek Philosophy


Western Philosophy: Descartes to Kant

Social & Political Philosophy: Indian and Western

Applied Ethics

Text of Indian Philosophy

Text of Western Philosophy

Truth Functional Logic

Analytic Philosophy

Continental Philosophy

Philosophy of Religion (Indian & Western)

Philosophy of Language (Indian & Western)

Discipline-Specific Elective-4 (DSE) Subject Centric (Any Four)

Philosophy of mind

Philosophy of science

Philosophy of logic

Knowledge and scepticism


Indian theories of consciousness

Philosophy of law

Indian materialism

Generic Elective (GE)– 4 (Inter-Disciplinary)

  • Ethics In Public Domain

  • Formal Logic

  • Feminism

  • Bio-Ethics

Skill Enhancement Course (SEC) -2

  • Critical Thinking

  • Art And Film Appreciation

BA Social Work

Beginnings of Social Work

Fundamental of Social Work

Sociology for Social Work

Concurrent Field Work

Concurrent- Qualifying Language

Basic Concepts in Psychology

Contemporary Social Concerns

Social Psychology

Concurrent- credit Language

Working with Individuals

Working with Groups

Social Deviance and Social Problems

Community Organization

Communication and Development

Physical, Mental and Community Health

Social Policy and Social Development

Social Legislation and Human Rights

Social Action and Movements

Social Welfare and Administration

Research in Social Work

Areas of Social Work Practice II

NGO Movement

BA Economics

Introductory Microeconomics

Mathematical Methods for Economics-I

Ability Enhancement Compulsory Course - I

Generic Elective - I

Introductory Macroeconomics

Mathematical Methods for Economics-II

Ability Enhancement Compulsory Course - II

Generic Elective - II

Intermediate Microeconomics-I

Intermediate Macroeconomics-I

Statistical Methods for Economics

Skill Enhancement Course - I

Generic Elective - III

Intermediate Microeconomics-II

Intermediate Macroeconomics-II

Introductory Econometrics

Skill Enhancement Course - II

Generic Elective - IV

Indian Economy - I

Development Economics - I

Discipline-Specific Elective - I

Discipline-Specific Elective - II

Indian Economy - II

Development Economics - II

Discipline-Specific Elective - III

Discipline-Specific Elective - IV

BA Archaeology

Methodology and Perspectives of Social Science

History of Art and Architecture in India

Basics of Archaeology

Introduction to Sociology

Cultural Transition in Pre-Modern Kerala

Methods of Archaeology

History of Folklore

Development of Sociological Theory

Making of Modern Kerala


Basics of Indian Numismatics

Introduction to Political Science

Understanding the Past

Early Societies in India

Development of Numismatics in India

Governmental Machinery and Processes

Growth of Indian Archaeology

Introduction to Archives and Records

Environmental History

Archaeological Sites and Monuments in India

Archival Conservation and Reprography


BA Sociology

Introduction to Sociology

Sociology of India

Sociological Theories

Methods of Sociological Enquiry

Religion and Society

Marriage, Family and Kinship

Social Stratification

Gender and Sexuality

Polity and Society in India

Economy and Society

Techniques of Social Research

Gender Sensitization

Society through the Visual


BA Geography



Cartographic Techniques

Geography of Population

Concurrent – Qualifying Language

Analytical Physical Geography


Thematic Cartography (Practical)

Geography of Settlements

Concurrent – Credit Language

Economic Geography

Environmental Geography

Remote Sensing (Practical)

Urban Geography

Concurrent – Interdisciplinary

Geography of Natural Resources

Spatial Dimensions of Development

Statistical Methods in Geography

Geography of India

Concurrent – Discipline Centered I

Evolution of Geographical Thought

Social Geography

Field Techniques

Agricultural Geography* (Optional)

Bio Geography* (Optional)

Political Geography* (Optional)

Disaster Management

Regional Planning: Case Studies

Geographical Information System

Geography of Tourism* (Optional)

Contemporary Environmental Issues* (Optional)

Rural Development* (Optional)

BA Anthropology

Introduction to Social Anthropology

Introduction to Biological Anthropology

Archaeological Anthropology-I

Technical Writing & Communication in English/ Computational Skills

Archaeological Anthropology-II

Anthropology of Kinship

Biostatistics and Data Analysis

Theories of Culture and Society

Human Genetics

Primate Biology / Cell Biology-I

Molecular Biology-I

Tribes and Peasants in India

Anthropology of religion, politics & economy

Biodiversity & Indigenous Knowledge / Cell Biology II

Anthropology of India / Molecular Biology-II

Human Ecology: Biological Dimensions

Biological Diversity in Human Populations

Human Ecology: Social and Cultural Dimensions

Genetics & Genomics-I

Field work dissertation

Fundamental of Human Origins and Evolution

Genomic Diversity in Human Populations

Anthropology In Practice / Genetics & Genomics-II


BA Linguistics

Introduction to Language

Elementary Phonetics and Phonology

Morphosyntactic Processes

Language, Mind and Brain

Language, Society and Language change

Linguistic Tradition and Historical Linguistics.

Issues in Applied Linguistics- I

Issues in Applied Linguistics- II

GE-2(ii): Language Interfaces

Understanding Human Language

Understanding Hindi as a Foreign Language

Understanding Concepts of Translation

Understanding Concepts of Language Acquisition and Intervention.


BA Rural Studies

Elements of Rural Development

Rural Development Policies and Programs

Indian Rural Economic Scene

Indian Rural Social Scene

BA career and jobs

After completing a BA course, candidates can pursue a master's course in the same discipline in which they graduated. Candidates who want to pursue a teaching career can opt for a BEd course after completing their bachelor's degree. Apart from these options, candidates are informed that after completing their BA course, they are eligible to sit for government exams.

However, applicants can also choose to search for a job immediately after completing their BA course. Some popular job profiles that candidates can pursue after a BA course are:

  • Content Writer: In this job profile, you need to search for information on the Internet or even through offline sources and create original content for the medium and company you work for.

  • Social worker: in a job profile of this type, it is necessary to identify and, thereafter, help people to cope with current problems.

  • Stewardess / Flight Attendant - In this job profile, you join the aviation industry and are responsible for ensuring the safety of passengers on board an aircraft. Apart from this, a stewardess / flight attendant also serves refreshments to passengers on an airplane.

Holders of a Bachelor of Arts become eligible to work in both the government and private sectors with an average salary ranging from INR 4-7LPA. Institutes of education, economic development, export companies, foreign relations, law firms, lobbying companies, media, etc., are some of the main domains for the work of these candidates.

BA students with less than 1 year of experience can expect a minimum salary of between INR 18,000 and 25,000. In cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, etc., you can expect a minimum wage of INR 22,000 to 28,000. In other cities, the minimum wage can start between 15,000 and 18,000 INR, but it largely depends on the profile of the job and the company.

Deloitte, ITC Hotels, NIIT, Byju's, Toppr, BCG, ICICI Bank, HDFC Bank, KPMG, Accenture, etc. are some of the top Bachelor of Arts recruiting companies.

After taking a BA course, you have a wide range of job options in industry, higher education, and jobs in the government sector.

You can earn a master's degree in various specializations such as:

MA Development Studies

MA Gender Studies

MA Journalism

MA Sociology

MA History

MA Education

MA International Relations

MA English

MA Economics

MA Psychology

MA Political Science

MA Anthropology

If you are interested in gaining employment in the public and service sectors in central and state government, then pursuing a bachelor's degree is the right option for you. Many BA students take exams like UPSC, IAS, SSC, etc. to get a job with a higher pay scale in the government sector. You can also pass the banking exams and get a job as a manager or senior executive in a bank.

Candidates can also attend professional courses like MBA, LLB, B.Ed, etc. Apart from these there are several professional diplomas also such as photography, language studies (French, Spanish, etc.), graphic design, digital marketing, etc. that will help you get better jobs in the market.

BA-related FAQs

Q. How is BA (Hons) better than BA?

A. By taking a Bachelor of Arts (Honors) course, you can specialize in a particular subject that is offered. In a normal BA course, there is no specialization. For example, you may have a BA (Hons) in History and may take a major in Psychology or Sociology.

Q. Do I need to have learned sociology in class 12 to get a BA in sociology?

A. It is recommended to have learned Sociology in Class 12 to be able to follow a Sociology course. Otherwise, apply to colleges that offer admission on the basis of entrance exams.

Q. What can I do after BA?

A. You can continue your studies or look for a job if you want. However, it is advisable to continue with your further studies, as you can specialize in topics and specify what you want to do in your career.

Q. Can I do an MBA after BA?

A. Yes, you can. However, it also depends on the course you chose at your graduation and how it will benefit you while taking your MBA.





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