Role of Education in India
Education in India is mainly provided by public schools and private schools. According to various articles of the Constitution of India, free and elementary education is a fundamental right of children aged 6 to 14 years. The approximate ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7: 5.Unlike other countries, private schools are more common among middle-class families. Much of the progress, especially in higher education and scientific research, has been attributed to various public institutions.
History Of Education In India
Takshasila (in present-day Pakistan) was the first registered center of higher education in India from possibly the 8th century BC. membership of private universities, and there appeared to have been no specially built conference rooms and residential neighborhoods in Taxila, in contrast to the later Nalanda University in eastern India. Nalanda was the oldest university system of education in the world in the modern sense of university. There all the subjects are taught in the Ariano-Pali language.
Secular institutions emerged throughout the Buddhist monasteries. These institutions provided practical education, for example medicine and also physical education. Various urban centers of learning became increasingly visible from the period 500 BC. And 400 BC. The important urban centers of learning were Nalanda (in present Bihar) and Manassa in Nagpur, among others. These institutions systematically imparted knowledge and attracted various foreign students to study subjects such as Pali Buddhist literature, logic, Pali grammar, etc. Chanakya, a Brahmin teacher, was one of the most famous teachers associated with the founding of the Mauryan Empire.
Sammanas and Brahmin gurus historically offered education through donations, rather than collecting fees or obtaining funds from students or their tutors. Later, stupas, temples also became centers of education; religious education is compulsory, but secular subjects are also taught. The students had to be brahmacaris or celibates. The knowledge in these orders was often related to the tasks that a sector of society had to perform. The priest class, the Sammanas, were taught knowledge of religion, philosophy, and other auxiliary branches, while the warrior class, the Kshatriya, were trained in the various aspects of warfare. The business class, the Vaishya, were taught their craft and the working class of the Shudras were generally deprived of educational advantages.
New Indian Education Policy
Education Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal and MHRD suggest changing Indian education, in line with the new inclusive education policy. All teachers need to be a member of national council for teacher education, in order to give good quality education to the students.
It divides the foundational stage into two parts (3-8 years), 3 years of preschool (Anganwadi) and two years of primary 1–2. Now students can start their education at 3 years old.
After preschool education, students will enter primary education in the age group 8-11, where they will study in classes 3-5. Teachers will place more emphasis on students; health, analytical skills, mathematical approach, reasoning, logical thinking and creative thinking. Classes will be more engaging and pedantic than book-based learning.
Starting in the sixth class (ages 11-14) onwards, additional vocational programs will be added. A more in-depth and particulate knowledge will be provided in subjects like science, math, arts, social sciences, and humanities, etc.
Upper secondary education
After completing class 8, students will enter upper secondary school between the ages of 14 and 18. This phase comprises two stages: in the first stage, students will study in classes, 9-10 and 11-12 in the second stage.
Administration of Education in India
National Education Policy
National Education policy is prepared by the central government and state governments at the national and state level, respectively. The National Education Policy (NPE) 1986 has provided for environmental awareness, science and technology education and the introduction of traditional elements such as yoga in the Indian secondary education system. An important feature of the Indian secondary education system is the emphasis on inclusion of disadvantaged sections of society. Professionals from established institutes are often called in to support vocational training. Another feature of the Indian secondary education system is its emphasis on profession-based vocational training to help students acquire the skills necessary to find their vocation of choice. An important new feature has been the extension of the SSA to secondary education in the form of Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan.
Curriculum and school education boards
School boards establish the curriculum, conduct board-level examinations primarily at levels 10 and 12 to award school diplomas. Tests at the remaining levels (also called standard, grade, or class, denoting years of schooling) are conducted by schools.
National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT): NCERT is the main body located in New Delhi, the capital of India. It makes the curriculum as aspects related to school education throughout India. NCERT provides support, guidance and technical assistance to various schools in India and oversees many aspects of the implementation of educational policies. There are other curricular bodies that govern the school education system, especially at the state level.
State government boards of education: Most state governments have at least one "state board of secondary education." However, some states like Andhra Pradesh have more than one. Also, union territories do not have a board. Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, and Lakshadweep and Pondicherry Lakshadweep share services with a larger state. The boards establish the curriculum for grades 1-12 and the curriculum varies from state to state and has more local appeal with exams conducted in regional languages other than English, often considered less rigorous than core curricula such as CBSE or ICSE / ISC. Most of them take exams at levels 10 and 12, but some even at levels 5, 6 and 8.
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE): The CBSE establishes the curriculum for grades 1 through 12 and conducts tests on standards 10 and 12 which are called board tests. Students studying the CBSE curriculum take the All India High School Exam (AISSE) at the end of Grade 10 and the All India High School Certificate Exam (AISSCE) at the end of Grade 12 the exams are offered in Hindi and English.
Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE): CISCE establishes the curriculum for grades 1-12 and conducts three exams, namely the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE - Class / Grade 10); The Indian School Certificate (ISC - Class / Grade 12) and the Certificate in Vocational Education (CVE - Class / Grade 12). CISCE's level of English has been compared to A-Levels in the UK; this board offers more theme options. The CBSE exams in grades 10 and 12 have often been compared to the ICSE and ISC exams. The ICSE is generally considered to be more rigorous than the CBSE AISSE (grade 10), but the CBSE AISSCE and ISC exams are almost on par in most subjects with the ISC, including an English exam a little more rigorous than the CBSE grade 12 exam. The CBSE and ISC are internationally recognized and most universities abroad accept the final results of the CBSE and ISC exams for admission purposes and as proof of completion of high school.
National Institute of Open Education (NIOS): The NIOS conducts two exams, namely High School Exam and Upper Secondary Exam (All India) and also some vocational education courses. The National Board of Education is led by the Ministry of Human Resource Development of the Government of India to provide education in rural areas and challenged groups in open and distance education mode. A pilot project initiated by CBSE to provide affordable upper-class education, providing education up to level 12. The choice of subjects is highly customizable and equivalent to CBSE. Homeschooled students generally take NIOS or International Curriculum exams as they are not eligible to take CBSE or ISC exams.
Open and distance learning
At the school level, the National Institute for Open Education (NIOS) provides continuing education opportunities to those who did not complete school education. 1.4 million Students are enrolled at secondary and upper secondary level through open and distance education. In 2012, several state governments also introduced the "state open school" to provide distance education.
At the higher education level, the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) coordinates distance learning. It has a cumulative enrollment of around 1.5 million, served through 53 regional centers and 1,400 study centers with 25,000 counselors. The Council for Distance Education (DEC), an authority of IGNOU, is coordinating 13 open state universities and 119 institutions of correspondence courses in conventional universities. Although distance learning institutions have expanded at a very rapid rate, most of these institutions need an improvement in their standards and performance. There is a great proliferation of courses covered by the distance modality without the adequate infrastructure, both human and physical. There is a great need to correct these imbalances. The HRD ministry and various educational institutes offer massive and open online educationfor free.
Central government involvement in Education
After the independence of India, a series of rules were formulated for the backward cataloged castes and the cataloged tribes of India. This was the initial steps taken by ministry of education.
The castes and tribes included in the list are included in many of the educational programs in India. Special reservations are also provided for included castes and tribes in India. A 15 percent reservation in Kendriya Vidyalaya for registered castes and another 7.5 percent reservation in Kendriya Vidyalaya for registered tribes. Registered Castes and Tribes hold similar reservations in many educational plans and facilities in India. The remote and far-flung regions of Northeast India are included in the Non-Invalidable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) from 1998–1999. The NLCPR aims to provide funding for infrastructure development in these remote areas. This also aims to control both department of education and also the department of higher education.
Women from remote and underdeveloped areas or from weaker social groups in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, are enrolled in the MahilaSamakhya Plan, initiated in 1989. Furthermore of the provisions for education, this program also aims to raise awareness by holding meetings and seminars at the
rural level. There are currently 68 BalBhavans and 10 Bal Kendra affiliated with the National BalBhavan. The scheme includes educational and social activities and the recognition of children with a marked talent for a certain educational trend. Within the framework of this scheme, various programs and activities are carried out, which also involve cultural exchanges and participation in various international forums.
National Education Day
Every year since 2008, November 11 is celebrated as an education day to mark the anniversary of the birth of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. Azad was the first independent education minister of India. Azad, a freedom fighter, served in India as the minister of education from 1947 to 1958. He is known for making several important contributions in the field of education.
The Ministry of Human Resource Development announced on September 11, 2008: "The Ministry has decided to commemorate the birthday of this great son of India by remembering his contribution to the cause of education in India. On November 11 of each year, as of 2008, it will be celebrated as the National Day of Education, without declaring it a holiday ". All educational institutions in the country celebrate the day with seminars, symposia, essay writing, elocution competitions, workshops, and rallies with banners and slogans on the importance of literacy and the nation's commitment to all aspects of education.
The day is also seen as an occasion to remember Azad's contribution in laying the foundation for the education system in an independent India and assessing and improving the country's current performance in the field.
The purpose of celebrating National Education Day should be to strengthen our educational institutions. It is to remind us that we must continue to raise the quality of education to greater heights. It should be an occasion to remember Maulana Azad's contribution mainly for two reasons. First, in laying the foundations of the educational system in an independent India. Second, evaluate our current performance in this field. So on this day, everyone involved in the field of education should come together to find ways to promote India's prestige in the world, as a knowledge society, and focus on how to educate our people.