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Education System in India:

Education in India is mainly provided by public schools (controlled by the government and financed at three levels: central, state, and local) and private schools. According to several articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory education is offered to children aged 6 to 14 as a fundamental right. The estimated ratio of public and private schools in India is 7: 5.

History Of Education:

Education is a stepping stone to a high career. The educational system in India dates back to the time when children learned gurukula and the guru-shishya system as a means of teaching. The Indian educational system has improved with the emergence of universities like Nalanda, Takshashila, Ujjain, and Vikramshila. The education system in India is well managed and controlled by the state, providing education for all without discrimination has become a government priority.

Taxila (in modern Pakistan) was probably the first registered higher education center in India since the 8th century BCE, and it is a matter of debate whether it can be considered a university in the modern sense as it should be a professor. Unofficial Takshashila was not a member of special colleges, reading rooms, and residential neighborhoods built for this purpose.

Nalanda was the oldest university education system in the world in the modern sense of the university. Here all subjects were taught in the Aryan-Pali language.

Secular institutions appeared in Buddhist monasteries. Between 500 BC E. And 400 A.D. E. The number of urban training centers has become more and more noticeable. Subjects such as Buddhist Pali literature, logic, Pali grammar, etc., the Brahmin teacher, Chanakya, was one of the most famous teachers associated with the establishment of the Maurya Empire.

Gurus Samana and the Brahmins have historically passed on education through donations rather than buying fees or money from students or their parents. The priestly classes of religion, philosophy, and other auxiliary branches, transmitted religion, while the warrior class, the Kshatriyas, were trained in various aspects of war. The business class, the Vaishyas, taught their craft, and the Sudra laboring class was generally deprived of educational benefits.

School Education Overview:

The central board and most state boards equally follow the “10 + 2 + 3” education model. In this scheme, 10 years are studied in schools and 2 years in junior colleges: 44 years and then ends. Bachelor's degree for 3 years. The first 10 years are divided into 4 years of primary education, 6 years of high school, and then 2 years of junior college. This model arose on the recommendation of the Education Commission 1964–66.

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is the apex body based in New Delhi, the capital of India. NCERT provides assistance, guidance, and technical assistance to many schools in India and oversees many aspects of educational policy compliance.

State Boards: Most state governments have one "State Council for Secondary Education". Also, there are no board in the union territories, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Lakshadweep and Puducherry Lakshadweep share services with a larger state.

Central Council of Secondary Education (CBSE): CBSE establishes a syllabus for grades 1 through 12 and conducts exams for class 10th and 12th, which are called board exams. Students studying the CBSE syllabus take the All India High School Examination (AISSE) at the end of class 10 and the All India High School Certificate Examination (AISSCE) at the end of class 12. Exams are given in Hindi and English.

Council Indian School Certification Exam (CISCE): CISCE defines the syllabus from 1st to 12th grade and conducts three exams, namely, India Secondary Education Certificate (ICSE - Class / 10th Grade); Indian School Certificate (ISC - Class / 12th grade), and Certificate in Professional Education (CVE - Class / 12th grade). The CISCE English level was compared to the UK's A-Levels; This table offers more subject options.

National Institute of Open School  (NIOS): NIOS conducts two exams, namely secondary and high school exams (all over India) and some vocational training courses.

Islamic Madrasahs: Their reigns are controlled by local state or autonomous governments, or affiliated with Darul Uloom Deoband or Darul Ulum Nadwtul Ulama.

Autonomous schools: such as Woodstock School, Sri Aurobindo Puducherry International Education Center, Patha Bhavan, and Ananda Marga Gurukula.

International Baccalaureate (IB) and Cambridge International Exams (CIB): These are generally private schools that have dual affiliations with the School Board of India and also participate in the International Baccalaureate (IB) program and/or Cambridge International Exams. (CIB).

International schools that offer 10th and 12th-grade examinations according to the International Backyard System, Cambridge High School exams, or school boards of their countries (eg, administered by foreign embassies or migrant communities).

Special Education: The Special Integrated Education Program (IEDC) for children with disabilities was started in 1974 with a focus on elementary education. But which has been converted to inclusive education at the secondary level.

Levels of School

Pre Primary education:

The preschool stage is the foundation of a child's knowledge, skills, and behavior. Upon completion of primary education, children are sent to primary school, but primary education is not a fundamental right of India. In the countryside of India, kindergartens are rarely available in small villages. Demand for kindergartens is growing significantly in small towns and cities, yet only 1% of the population under the age of 6 is educated in kindergarten.

Playgroup (in front of nursery school): In playschool, many basic learning activities that help children develop self-help qualities such as speeding independence, eating food for themselves, dressing up, and maintaining cleanliness. Be exposed to. The age limit for admission to the nursery is 2-3 years. Anganwadi is a government-sponsored free local childcare and Mothercare nutrition and learning program that also incorporates a free lunch scheme.

Nursery: Nursery-level activities help children develop their talents, thereby allowing them to sharpen their mental and physical abilities. The age limit for admission to the nursery is 3-4 years.

LKG: Also known as the Junior Kindergarten (Jr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission to LKG is 4-5 years.

UKG: Also known as the Senior Kindergarten (Sr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission to UKG is 5-6 years.

Primary education:

Primary education in India is divided into two parts: primary education (class I-IV) and primary education (secondary school, class V-VIII). The Indian government focuses on basic education (Grades I to VIII), also known as basic education for children aged 6-14 years.

This primary education system has not been able to record a high enrollment rate of 93-95% in some states over the past three years. The scheme also achieved significant improvements in the recruitment and enrollment of girls.  The current plan to universalize education for all is Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, the world's largest education initiative. The set has improved, but the quality level is low.

Secondary Education:

Secondary education covers children between the ages of 14 and 18, a group of 88.5 million according to the 2001 Indian Census. The last two years of high school are often called high school (HS), high school, or simply the stage +2. Each of the two halves of high school is an important step, which requires a certificate of passing the exam and therefore forms part of the central education directorates of the Ministry of Human Rights before a person can attend higher education, including higher education. higher or professional courses. It also states that, after completing high school, it is possible to enroll in higher education under the control of UGC, such as Engineering, Medicine, and Business Administration.

Most schools in India do not offer discipline and schedule flexibility due to budgetary constraints (for example, most students in India are not allowed to study chemistry and history in 11-12. class because they are part of different “streams”) Individual applicants (i.e., not in school) are generally not allowed to register and participate in council exams, but there are exceptions such as NIOS.

10th exam (admission or intermediate)

Students taking the 10th-grade exam usually have six subjects: English, mathematics, social studies, science, a language, and an additional subject, depending on the availability of the teacher. Optional or optional subjects generally include computer applications, economics, physical education, commerce, and ecology.

12th Exam (Secondary High School Stage or Second High School Stage)

12th-grade (Senior secondary or higher secondary) exam:

Students taking the 12th-grade exam usually study four or five subjects, English or a local language is required. Students who re-enroll in most secondary schools after grade 10 must take a “basic course” in addition to English or local language: science (math/biology, chemistry, and physics), commerce (accounts, business, and economics studies. ), or the humanities (any three of history, political science, sociology, psychology, and geography, depending on the school). Students study math before calculating a single variable in grade 12.

Types of schools

Secondary schools

Most students attend public schools, where poor and vulnerable students study for free until the age of 14. According to the Department of Education, 65.2% (113 million) of all school children in 20 states attend public schools (circa 2017). An example of a large school system run by the central government: Kendriya Vidyalaya in urban areas, talented pupils, for weaker girls SC / ST / OBC at Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya, Indian army public school run by the Indian army for the Ha Indian army. Children of soldiers.

Government Aided -private schools

These are usually schools run by charitable foundations that are partially funded by the government. The largest supported school system is run by D.A.V. College Steering Committee.

Private School (Unaided)

It is currently estimated that 29% of Indian children receive a private education. With over 50% of children enrolled in private schools in cities, the balance has already shifted towards private schools in cities; and even in rural areas, almost 20% of children in 2004-2005 were enrolled in private schools.

Most middle-class families send their children to private schools, which may be located in their own town or in remote boarding schools. Private schools have been established since the days of British rule in India, and St. George's School in Chennai is the oldest private school in India. English is often the language of instruction in these schools, but Hindi and/or the official language of the state are also taught as a compulsory subject. Preschool education is mainly limited to organized district kindergartens with some organized networks.

According to some studies, private schools tend to provide excellent results at several times the unit cost of public schools. The reason is high goals and a better view. However, others have suggested that private schools are unable to provide education for the poorest families, the sample was only a fifth of schools, and in the past, ignored court orders to regulate it. them. It was pointed out that private schools cover the entire curriculum and offer curriculum activities, such as science fairs, general knowledge, sports, music, and theater.

International schools:

As of January 2015, the International Schools of Consultancy (ISC) lists 410 international schools in India. ISC defines an "international school" as "ISC". If the school offers a curriculum for any combination of pre-primary level, primary or secondary school students, wholly or partially in English outside an English-speaking country, or if the school is located in a country with English as an official language offers an English-language syllabus that differs from the national curriculum and is international in nature.

Tertiary education

After passing the Higher Secondary Exam, students can enroll in general degree programs, such as bachelor's degrees (undergraduate) in arts, commerce, or science, or professional degree programs such as engineering, medicine, nursing, pharmaceutical and right. Graduates. India's higher education system ranks third in the world, after China and the United States.

Distance learning is also a type of Indian higher education system. The government of India established the Rashtriya Uchchattar Shiksha Abhiyan to provide strategic funding to public and technical universities. It will serve 316 public universities and 13,024 colleges.

Several institutes in India such as the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) and the National Institute of Technology (NIT) have gained worldwide recognition for their postgraduate engineering standards. Several other institutes for basic research such as the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Indian Association for the Advancement of Science (IACS), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Tata Institute for Basic Research (TIFR), Harish Chandra Research Institute (HRI), Indian Institute for Science Education and Research (IISER) are also renowned for their research standard in basic sciences and mathematics. However, India has failed to create world-class universities in either the private or public sector.

The Indian government is aware of the difficult situation in the higher education sector and is trying to reform it, but 15 bills still await parliamentary debate and approval. One of the most discussed bills is the Foreign Universities Act, which aims to facilitate the admission of foreign universities to establish campuses in India. The bill is still under debate and, even if approved, its feasibility and effectiveness are questionable, as it does not take into account the context, diversity, and segment of foreign international organizations interested in India.

Open and distance learning:

At the school level, the National Institute of Open Education (NIOS) offers continuing education opportunities for those who miss school. 1.4 million students are enrolled in elementary and high school through open and distance courses. In 2012, several state governments also introduced the Open Public School for distance education.

In higher education, the National Open University Indira Gandhi (IGNOU) co-ordinates distance learning. It has a cumulative enrollment of around 1.5 million, served by 53 regional centers and 1,400 study centers with 25,000 advisers. The Distance Education Council (DEC), an authority of IGNOU, is coordinating 13 State Open Universities and 119 institutions of correspondence courses at conventional universities. Although distance education institutions have expanded at a very rapid rate, most of these institutions need a higher gradation in their standards and performance. There is a great proliferation of distance courses without adequate infrastructure, both human and physical. There is a great need to correct these imbalances.

Problems in Education:

Facilities

According to the 2016 Annual Education Survey (ASER) report, 3.5% of schools in India did not have toilets, while only 68.7% of schools had usable toilets. 74.1% of schools had drinking water and 64.5% of schools had playgrounds.

Curriculum issues

Modern education in India is often criticized for being rooted in rote learning rather than problem-solving. About 99% of preschool institutions have no curriculum. Also, in most establishments, creativity is discouraged or seen as entertainment.

Women’s education

The female literacy rate is much lower than the male rate. Fewer girls go to school, and many of them drop out. In the patriarchal setting of the Indian family, girls have a lower status and fewer privileges than boys. Recently, the Government of India launched the Saakshar Bharat mission to improve women's literacy. This mission aims to halve female illiteracy from the current level.

 

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